Notes to reader
Russian names have been transliterated in accordance with the Library of Congress system, the soft sign being rendered by an apostrophe. Dates referring to events in Russia before January 1918 are in the Old Style. Consequently, if they are in the nineteenth century, then they are twelve days behind the Western calendar, whereas if they are between 1900 and 1918 they are thirteen days behind.
The city of St. Petersburg was renamed Petrograd in 1914, Leningrad in 1924, and then St. Petersburg again in 1992. However, both the names Petrograd and Petersburg continued to be used freely in common parlance and in publications until 1924. As a general rule, however, Petrograd has been retained here as the official name of St. Petersburg for the period 1914–24.